დავით ზაუტაშვილი, მანანა ქარქაშაძე
ინტერნეტი, ელექტრონული მთავრობა, ელექტრონული კომერცია
Electronic Participation in Local Self-Government
Akaki Tsereteli State University Kutaisi, Georgia
Akaki Tsereteli State University, Kutaisi, Georgia
Abstract: There are considered in a given article the forms of interaction of Electronic Government with different civil society actors. There is given a review of one of the areas of Electronic Government concept – Electronic Participation. There is analyzed the level of the development of Electronic Participation of the local-self-government web-sites in Georgia.
Keywords – E-government, E-participation, Local self-government.
One of the important elements of the formation of Information Society is the development of Electronic Government. At present, there grows understanding of fact that the electronic government means not only application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in exercising the functions of state structures, but it is a matter of reorganization of activity of the State on the basis of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) that leads us to the new degree of public administration as well as to the development of new forms of democracy.
The concept of Electronic Government is based on three postulates: the openness or publicity, electronic participation and online-transactions. Let us particularly note the electronic participation, which is quite meaningful for the assessment of the state of civil society in any country.
The range of e-Participation problems is wide enough. There are continued to appear the new e-participation programs, developed new principles of functioning and assessment of the efficiency of these programs, which should be generalized and analyzed. In the present context, the most important and having the practical value is a comprehensive analysis of possibilities and evaluation of the efficiency of use of information and communication technology as an instrument of public participation, first of all in relationships between citizens and power institutions at all levels.
Particular importance is attached to the development of Electronic Participation in local self-government system, since this branch of power is much closer to population.
II.THE FORMS OF INTERACTION OF ELECTRONIC GOVERNMENT
There are several definitions of Electronic Government, which have become wide spread. For example, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development defines Electronic Government as use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), particularly the Internet, for improving the quality of the government services , but the World Bank understands Electronic Government as (such as global data transmission networks, Internet, mobile computing) by government agencies to transform the relationships between citizens, business and different branches of State power . The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs understands by Electronic Government the government, which uses ICT for transformation of internal and external relations for the purpose of optimization in the exercise of its functions .
E-government simply means modern government that performs all its functions and provides all its services through intensive use of electronic means for information processing, computers, networks, internet etc. Electronic means are not only used for internal information processing and communication within public institutions, but also for communication with other institutions, citizens and businesses. Figure 1 shows three business relations that are most important for the introduction of e-government and involve the main business partners of government, i.e. citizens, businesses and NGOs.
Functionally, the activities of Electronic Government can be divided into four components: government to government (providing the services by state structure to other administrative agencies); government to citizens (provision of state services to the population); government to business (provision of state services to business sector) and government to nonprofit. (Provision of state services to nonprofit sector) There are accepted now the following abbreviations of these components: G2G (government to government); G2C (government to citizens); G2B (government to business); G2N (government to nonprofit)